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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

INFLUENCE OP CERTAIN ELEMENTS ON STEEL.
365
la 1903 a pamphlet was issued on nickel steel, by A. L. Colby. His conclusions may be thus summarized: Three per cent,  of nickel in steel of 0.25  per cent,  carbon
TABLE XVII-L. Nickel Steel as Compared with Carbon Steel.
NOTE.—All steels were made in an acid open-hearth furnace by The Pennsylvania
Steel Company.
Kind of steel.	Composition; percent.								
	C.		Mn.		P.                      S.				NI.
Nickel           . .	.24 .80 to .85 .25 to .80		0.78 .60 to 1.00 .60 to   .80		.032                      .027 .03 to .05           .08 to .05 .03 to .06           .03 to .07				8.25 nil. nil.
Hard forging . . Forging     ....									
Shape of member.		Kind of steel.		Ultimate strength; pounds per square inch.	Elastic limit; pounds per square inch.	Elastic ratio; per cent.	Elongation In 8 inches ; per cent.	Elongation in 2 inches ; per cent.	Reduction of area; per cent.
Bounds,		Nickel . .		86015 87668 78066	63575 58055 61793	73.9 66.2 66.8	20.19 16.70 23.94	84.00 24.44	46.3 80.3 52.0
		Hard forging . Forging ....							
Angles,		Nickel . .		86960 87820 70970	58558 64153 49544	67.8 61.7 • 64.4	21.75 19.25	89.67 84.83	60.5 43.3 49.6
		Hard forging . Forging ....							
									
Universal plates, longitudinal,		Nickel . .		85773 82778 78996	58410 50163 46654	68.1 60.6 5'J.l	21.08 20.50 26.78	89.25 87.67	62.0 47.0 52.1
		Hard forging . Forging .-. . .							
Universal plates, transverse,		Nickel . .		86417 85178	58203 (50000)*	67.4 (58.7)*	16.50 18.83	28.92 28.17	86.1 27.4
		Hard forging .							
									
Sheared plates, longitudinal,		Nickel . .		85887 85012 78918	58169 (50000)* 49128	68.2 (58.8)* 62.3	19.00 22.10 22.03	85.60 89.40	48.8 48.4 60.8 43.4 41.8
		Hard forging . Forging ....							
Sheared plates, '  transverse,		Nickel. .		84877 84827	67260 (50000)*	67.9 (59.3)*	17.13 21.71	82.60 87.00	
		Hard forging , Forging , . . ,							
produces a metal as strong as simple carbon steel of 0.45 per cent, carbon, but with the ductility of the lower carbon steel.
On low-carbon steels not annealed, each 1 per cent, of nickel up to 5 per cent, causes an increase of 5000 pounds in the elastic limit and 4000 pounds in the ultimate strength, high-carbon steels showing more gain than soft steel, the higher elastic limit giving more working capacity. __________         '__________________
* Approximate; could not determine accurately.